One way or the other, Petrov thought, New York would have the dubious distinction of being only the third city in the world destroyed by a nuclear weapon. The Manhattan Project was coming home.
(Radiant Angel, Nelson DeMille, page 130)
Cecil Blount DeMille (/dəˈmɪl/; August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was an American filmmaker. Between 1913 and 1956, he made seventy features, both silent and sound films. He is acknowledged as a founding father of the Hollywood film industry, and the most commercially successful producer-director in cinema history. His films were distinguished by their epic scale and by his cinematic showmanship. He made silent films of every genre: social dramas, comedies, Westerns, farces, morality plays, and historical pageants.
DeMille began his career as a stage actor in 1900. He later moved to writing and directing stage productions, some with Jesse Lasky, who was then a vaudeville producer. DeMille’s first film, The Squaw Man (1914), was also the first feature film shot in Hollywood. Its interracial love story made it a phenomenal hit and it “put Hollywood on the map.” The continued success of his productions led to the founding of Paramount Pictures with Lasky and Adolph Zukor. His first biblical epic, The Ten Commandments (1923), was both a critical and financial success; it held the Paramount revenue record for twenty-five years.
In 1927 he directed The King of Kings, a biography of Jesus Christ, which was acclaimed for its sensitivity and reached more than 800 million viewers. The Sign of the Cross (1932) was the first sound film to integrate all aspects of cinematic technique. Cleopatra (1934) was his first film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. After more than thirty years in Hollywood, DeMille reached the pinnacle of his career with Samson and Delilah (1949), a biblical epic which did “an all-time record business.” Along with biblical and historical narratives, he also directed films oriented toward “neo-naturalism,” which tried to portray the laws of man fighting the forces of nature. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecil_B._DeMille [emphasis added]
Atomic bomb mushroom clouds over Hiroshima (left)and Nagasaki (right)
The United States, with the consent of the United Kingdom as laid down in the Quebec Agreement, dropped nuclear weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively, during the final stage of World War II. The two bombings, which killed at least 129,000 people, remain the only use of nuclear weapons for warfare in history.
In the final year of the war, the Allies prepared for what was anticipated to be a very costly invasion of the Japanese mainland. This was preceded by a U.S. conventional and firebombing campaign that destroyed 67 Japanese cities. The war in Europe had concluded when Nazi Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 8, 1945. The Japanese, facing the same fate, refused to accept the Allies’ demands for unconditional surrender, and the Pacific War continued. The Allies called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945—the alternative being “prompt and utter destruction”. The Japanese response to this ultimatum was to ignore it.
By August 1945, the Allies’ Manhattan Project had produced two types of atomic bombs, and the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces(USAAF) was equipped with the specialized Silverplate version of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress that could deliver them from Tinian in the Mariana Islands. Orders for atomic bombs to be used on four Japanese cities were issued on July 25. On August 6, the U.S. dropped a uranium gun-type (Little Boy) bomb on Hiroshima, and American President Harry S. Truman called for Japan’s surrender, warning it to “expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth.” Three days later, on August 9, a plutonium implosion-type (Fat Man) bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed 90,000–146,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000–80,000 in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day. During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison.
On August 15, six days after the bombing of Nagasaki and the Soviet Union‘s declaration of war, Japan announced its surrender to the Allies. On September 2, it signed the instrument of surrender, effectively ending World War II. The bombings’ role in Japan’s surrender and their ethical justification are still debated.
|Country|| United States of America
|Branch||U.S. Army Corps of Engineers|
|Garrison/HQ||Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.|
|Anniversaries||13 August 1942|
|Disbanded||15 August 1947|
|James C. Marshall
|Shoulder patch that was adopted in 1945 for the Manhattan District|
|Manhattan Project emblem (unofficial)|
The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District; “Manhattan” gradually superseded the official codename, Development of Substitute Materials, for the entire project. Along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys. The Manhattan Project began modestly in 1939, but grew to employ more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US $2 billion (about $26 billion in 2016 dollars). Over 90% of the cost was for building factories and producing the fissile materials, with less than 10% for development and production of the weapons. Research and production took place at more than 30 sites across the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada.
Two types of atomic bomb were developed during the war; a relatively simple gun-type fission weapon was made using uranium while a more complex plutonium implosion-type weapon was designed concurrently. For the gun-type weapon development uranium-235 (an isotope that makes up only 0.7 percent of natural uranium) was required. Chemically identical to the most common isotope, uranium-238, and with almost the same mass, it proved difficult to separate the two. Three methods were employed for uranium enrichment: electromagnetic, gaseous and thermal. Most of this work was performed at the Clinton Engineer Works at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In parallel with the work on uranium was an effort to produce plutonium. After the feasibility of the world’s first artificial nuclear reactor was demonstrated in Chicago at the Metallurgical Laboratory, it designed reactors at Oak Ridge and Hanford, Washington, in which uranium was irradiated and transmuted into plutonium. The plutonium was then chemically separated from the uranium. The gun-type design proved impractical to use with plutonium so the implosion-type weapon was developed in a concerted design and construction effort at the project’s principal research and design laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico.
The project was also charged with gathering intelligence on the German nuclear weapon project. Through Operation Alsos, Manhattan Project personnel served in Europe, sometimes behind enemy lines, where they gathered nuclear materials and documents, and rounded up German scientists. Despite the Manhattan Project’s tight security, Soviet atomic spies still penetrated the program.
The first nuclear device ever detonated was an implosion-type bomb at the Trinity test, conducted at New Mexico’s Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range on 16 July 1945. Little Boy, a gun-type weapon, and Fat Man, an implosion-type weapon, were used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. In the immediate postwar years, the Manhattan Project conducted weapons testing at Bikini Atoll as part of Operation Crossroads, developed new weapons, promoted the development of the network of national laboratories, supported medical research into radiology and laid the foundations for the nuclear navy. It maintained control over American atomic weapons research and production until the formation of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947.
The Manhattan Project was the code name given to the American effort to develop the first nuclear weapons during World War II, with assistance from the United Kingdom and Canada.
Manhattan Project can also refer to:
- The Manhattan Project (film), a 1986 film
- The Manhattan Project (album), a 1990 album by a short lived jazz/fusion supergroup of the same name
- The Manhattan Project (Carter Ace album), a 2015 album by hip hop artist, Carter Ace
- “Manhattan Project” (song), a 1985 song by Rush
- “The Manhattan Project” (Ugly Betty), an episode of Ugly Betty
- The Manhattan Project, a theatrical company created in 1968 by Andre Gregory
- Duke Nukem: Manhattan Project (2002), a video game
- Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III: The Manhattan Project (1991), a video game
- Manhattan (TV series), a 2014 WGN original series loosely based on the Manhattan Project
- The Manhattan Projects, a comic book series about an alternate reality Manhattan Project developing a wider range of science experiments
- Manhattan Project National Historical Park, a park commemorating the Manhattan Project located in Washington state, New Mexico and Tennessee.
Petrov looked at Dr. Urmanov, who had been given very few details of the operation, but who knew that the device would be arriving and that his job was to ensure that it was operational and armed. Urmanov had actually designed these miniature nuclear weapons—what the Americas called suitcase nukes—in the 1970’s, and they had worked perfectly in tests when new. But they were complex and temperamental, and they needed periodic maintenance and a technician to properly arm them—or the inventor himself, if a major problem was discovered. The device that was to be delivered to the yacht, Petrov knew, would yield ten to twelve kilotons of atomic energy. Petrov would have liked a bigger device, but twelve kilotons was the limit of these miniaturized devices that were designed to be small, relatively light, self-contained, and easily transported—like a steam trunk, perfect to take aboard a ship or plane. Petrov smiled.
(Radiant Angel, Nelson DeMille, pages 110-111, emphasis added; it is illegal for Mormon computer gremlin wiseguys to again change DeMille to DeFile)
The multiyear campaign will initially appear where the travel journey begins: online via social media and in a major travel hub, New York’s Penn Station.
CAN TRAVEL HELP ELIMINATE TERRORISM?
(Luggage maker Samsonite plans IPO in Hong Kong, Mormon Church of Satan KSL, article/photos dated June 2, 2011; advertisements: December 1, 2016, http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700140911/Luggage-maker-Samsonite-plans-IPO-in-Hong-Kong.html)
|Traded as||SEHK: 1910|
|Founded||Denver, Colorado, USA 1910|
|Headquarters||Luxembourg City, Luxembourg (registered office)
Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong(financial)
|Ramesh Dungarmal Tainwala, CEO|
Samsonite International S.A. (SEHK: 1910) is an American luggage manufacturer and retailer, with products ranging from large suitcases to small toiletries bags and briefcases. It was founded in Denver, Colorado in 1910 by Jesse Shwayder. Shwayder named one of his initial cases Samson, after the Biblical strongman, and began using the trademark Samsonite in 1941. The company changed its name to Samsonite in 1966.
Three times Samson gave Delilah misleading answers to her inquiry, and three times she betrayed him by trying to deliver him to his enemies. But “it came about that because she pressured him with her words all the time and kept urging him, his soul got to be impatient to the point of dying.” Samson finally revealed the truth
That was Samson’s downfall. Delilah maneuvered him into a situation to have his head shaved. Samson’s power, however, was not literally in his hair. His hair merely represented his special relationship with God as a Nazirite. When Samson allowed himself to get into a situation that affected his Naziriteship because of the shaving of his head, ‘Jehovah departed from him.’ Philistines now overpowered Samson, blinded him, and put him in prison.
(Samson Triumphs in the Strength of Jehovah!, The Watchtower magazine, March 15, 2005, http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/2005206#h=15, some of the federal agents who’re pretending to be Jehovah’s Witnesses gave me permission to post this information, cc all Mormon attorneys)
“JAY-Z” BLUEPRINT … CHASE BLUEPRINT … [Chevy] AN AMERICAN REVOLUTION
MOROCCAN OIL M
(Mormon Church of Satan Deseret News, article and three photos: April 9, 2013; advertisement: December 3,2016, http://www.deseretnews.com/article/765626459/Morocco-actor-amused-by-Satan-Obama-comparisons.html?pg=all )
|Ricks College, Ricks Academy|
[I have no complaint against this small business owner.]