Song of Solomon 1
15 “Look! You are beautiful, O girl companion of mine.+ Look! You are beautiful. Your eyes are [those of] doves.”+
16 “Look! You are beautiful,*+ my dear one, also pleasant. Our divan+ also is one of foliage.
17 The beams of our grand house* are cedars,+ our rafters juniper trees.
https://www.jw.org/en/publications/bible/bi12/books/song-of-solomon/1/ [emphasis added]
[Isaiah 37:24 reference scripture, NWT:]
2 Kings 19:23
By means of your messengers+ you have taunted Jehovah* and you say,+ ‘With the multitude* of my war chariots I myself+—I shall certainly ascend the height of mountainous regions,+ The remotest parts of Lebʹa·non;+ And I shall cut down its lofty cedars,+ its choice juniper trees.+ And I will enter its final lodging place, the forest of its orchard.
August 6, 2017. About Me. Trees by Joyce Kilmer, is one of my very favorite poems. I learned to sing the poem to melody, in grammar school, P.S. 22 choir in Jersey City, New Jersey. We only sang in the school auditorium, unlike P.S. 22 Choir on Staten Island, founded by Mormon Danites/Danettes shortly after I first wrote about my love of music and my fond memories of being in a choir. cc all Mormon barristers
A poem lovely as a tree.
A tree whose hungry mouth is prest
Against the sweet earth’s flowing breast;
A tree that looks at God all day,
And lifts her leafy arms to pray;
A tree that may in summer wear
A nest of robins in her hair;
Upon whose bosom snow has lain;
Who intimately lives with rain.
But only God can make a tree.
[Heb., ʽets; Gr., denʹdron].
The great variation in the climate of Palestine and neighboring lands made possible a very diversified growth of trees, from the cedars of Lebanon to the date palms of Jericho and the broom trees of the desert. Some 30 different types of trees are mentioned in the Bible, and these are considered in this publication under the particular name of the tree.
The problem of identifying the particular tree indicated by the original Hebrew or Greek word is frequently a difficult one, and in a number of cases, the identification is only tentative. Such identification depends upon the extent of description given in the actual Bible record as to the characteristics of the tree (at times indicated by the meaning of the root word from which the name is derived) and by comparison of such description with the trees now known to grow in Bible lands, particularly in the regions indicated in the Bible text, when these are so mentioned. Additional help comes from a study of cognate words (that is, words that by their form give evidence of being related and having proceeded from the same original root or source) in other languages, such as Arabic and Aramaic. In some cases it seems the wiser course simply to transliterate the name, as, for example, in the case of the algum tree.
As Harold and Alma Moldenke point out in their book Plants of the Bible (1952, pp. 5, 6), many of the trees now found in Palestine may not have been growing there in Bible times, since, as they state, “floras change, especially in regions like Palestine and Egypt where man, notorious for his aptitude in upsetting the delicately adjusted balances in nature, has been most active” for thousands of years. They further state: “Many plants which grew in abundance in the Holy Land or surrounding countries in Biblical days are now no longer found there or else grow in far smaller numbers.” Some types have been exterminated or greatly diminished by excessive cultivation of the land or by devastation of timberlands due to the invading forces of Assyria, Babylon, on down to Rome. (Jer 6:6; Lu 19:43) The destruction of trees and forests has allowed the topsoil to wash away and has resulted in barrenness and desolation in many areas.
As early as in Abraham’s day, trees were listed in a contract for the transfer of property.
In the Law. Later Jehovah God brought Israel into Canaan, a land containing “trees for food in abundance.” He promised to provide the needed rain if Israel obeyed him, and he required that a tenth of the fruits be set aside for the use of the sanctuary and the priesthood. (Ne 9:25; Le 26:3, 4; 27:30) On invading the land, the Israelites were instructed not to destroy the fruit-bearing trees when attacking the cities, although centuries later the kings of Judah and Israel were authorized by God to devastate the ‘good trees’ of the kingdom of Moab. The reason appears to be that Moab was outside the Promised Land. It was punitive warfare against Moab, and the Israelite action was a protection against Moabite revolt or retaliation. (De 20:19, 20; 2Ki 3:19, 25; compare Jer 6:6.) On planting a tree, the owner was not to eat of its fruit during the first three years, and in the fourth year its fruitage was to be devoted to sanctuary use. (Le 19:23-25; compare De 26:2.) Thereafter the annual first ripe fruits were likewise so dedicated.
Figurative Use. In the garden of Eden, God employed two trees for symbolic purposes: “the tree of life” and “the tree of the knowledge of good and bad.” Failure to respect God’s decree concerning the latter brought man’s fall.
The significance of “the tree of the knowledge of good and bad” and of the restriction placed on its fruit has often been incorrectly viewed as relating to the sexual act between the first human pair. This view is contradicted by God’s plain command to them as male and female to “be fruitful and become many and fill the earth.” (Ge 1:28) Rather, by standing for “the knowledge of good and bad” and by God’s pronouncement decreeing it to be out-of-bounds for the human pair, the tree became a symbol of God’s right to determine or set the standards for man as to what is “good” (approved by God) and what is “bad” (condemned by God). It thus constituted a test of man’s respect for his Creator’s position and his willingness to remain within the area of freedom decreed by God, an area that was by no means cramped and that allowed for the greatest enjoyment of human life. Therefore, to violate the boundaries of the prohibited area by eating of “the tree of the knowledge of good and bad” would be an invasion of or a revolt against God’s domain and authority.
Trees were also used to symbolize individuals, rulers, and kingdoms, as in the prophecy likening the fall of Pharaoh and his crowd to the cutting down of a lofty cedar (Eze 31), as well as in Daniel’s prophecy regarding the mighty tree representing dominion “in the kingdom of mankind.” (Da 4:10-26) The righteous man is likened to a tree planted by streams of water (Ps 1:3), whose foliage is luxuriant and whose fruit continues to grow even in drought.
The promise that the days of God’s restored people will be like those of a tree (Isa 65:22) is made more meaningful by the fact that some trees of Palestine live for centuries, even up to a thousand years or more. In Ezekiel’s vision a stream flowing from the visionary temple was lined with fruitful trees of healing foliage, and a similar vision is presented in the book of Revelation. (Eze 47:7, 12; Re 22:2, 14) The expression “tree of life” is used with regard to true wisdom, the fruitage of the righteous, the realization of a thing desired, and calmness of the tongue; it is also associated with the crown of life. (Pr 3:18; 11:30; 13:12; 15:4; Re 2:7, 10) Trees are mentioned in association with the fruitful, peaceful, and joyful conditions resulting from Jehovah’s kingship and the restoration of his people.
Jesus used trees in some of his illustrations stressing the need for fruitfulness in true righteousness, as John the Baptizer had done before him. (Mt 3:10; 7:15-20) Since fruit trees were taxed in Palestine in that time, an unproductive tree (as good as dead) was an undesirable burden to the owner and, hence, a tree to be chopped down and destroyed. (Lu 13:6-9) At Jude 12, immoral persons who infiltrate the Christian congregation are likened to fruitless trees in autumn time that have died twice. Their being described as ‘twice dead’ may be an emphatic way of expressing that they are completely dead. Or, it could signify that they are dead from two viewpoints. They are (1) barren or fruitless and (2) literally dead, possessing no vitality.
The Hebrew word for tree is also used with regard to the stake or post on which a body was hung. (Ge 40:19; De 21:22, 23; Jos 8:29; Es 2:23) In applying Deuteronomy 21:23, the apostle Paul used the Greek word xyʹlon (wood).
(INSIGHT on the Scriptures, God’s visible organization’s Watchtower Online Library, https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200004472#h=3, some of the federal agents who’re pretending to be Jehovah’s Witnesses gave me permission to post this information, cc all Mormon barristers)
The cedar trees, and particularly those of Lebanon, were renowned in Bible times and are especially prominent in the account of the temple construction by Solomon.
The cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) is a majestic tree of massive proportions, with deep, strong roots. Large forests of these cedars once blanketed the mountains of Lebanon, but today only a few small groves remain because of indiscriminate use and the failure to replenish the trees by proper conservation and reseeding. The ravages of war doubtless contributed to this depletion as well. (Isa 14:5-8) However, the remaining trees still present an impressive sight.
The cedars sometimes reach a height of 37 m (120 ft) and the trunk may have a circumference of up to 12 m (40 ft). The long, spreading branches, stretching out horizontally from the trunk, may give a total circumference of as much as 60 to 90 m (200 to 300 ft). The trees are somewhat pyramid-shaped when young but tend to flatten out on top as they mature. The foliage grows in distinct horizontal tiers or layers (instead of interlacing), the boughs bearing round flowerlike sprays of bright-green needles about 1.3 cm (0.5 in.) in length, and tan-colored cones that exude a fragrant resin. The bark is reddish brown in color and quite rough. The trunk becomes gnarled with age.
The wood of the cedar has a warm red tone, is free from knots, and was valued highly for building purposes because of its beauty, fragrance, durability, and resistance to attack by insects. (Ca 1:17; 4:11) The Phoenician shipbuilders used it for their masts. (Eze 27:5) King Hiram of Tyre supplied men and materials for building “a house of cedars” for David in Jerusalem. (2Sa 5:11; 7:2; 2Ch 2:3) Solomon later used cedarwood in the temple, for the beams (1Ki 6:9), for overlaying the altar of incense (1Ki 6:20), and for paneling the interior of the temple in its entirety so that “there was no stone to be seen.” (1Ki 6:15-18) “The House of the Forest of Lebanon,” constructed later, was probably so named because of its 45 pillars of cedarwood. (1Ki 7:2, 3) Cedar was also used in the Porch of the Throne and in the temple courtyard.
Such extensive use of cedarwood required the labor of thousands of workers in cutting the trees, transporting them to Tyre or Sidon on the Mediterranean seacoast, forming them into rafts, and floating them down the coast, probably to Joppa. They were then hauled overland to Jerusalem. This was worked out by a contract between Solomon and Hiram. (1Ki 5:6-18; 2Ch 2:3-10) Thereafter the flow of lumber continued so that it could be said that Solomon made ‘cedarwood like the sycamore tree for quantity’ during his reign.
Following the exile, cedar timbers from Lebanon were again obtained for reconstruction work on the temple.
Figurative Use. In the Scriptures the majestic cedar is used figuratively to represent stateliness, loftiness, and strength, either real or apparent. (Eze 31:2-14; Am 2:9; Zec 11:1, 2) Thus, King Jehoash of Israel intended his reply to King Amaziah of Judah to be a withering insult when he compared Amaziah’s kingdom to a “thorny weed” while likening his own kingdom to a mighty cedar of Lebanon. (2Ki 14:9; compare Jg 9:15, 20.) The cedar figures dramatically in Ezekiel’s riddle (chap 17), wherein the king and princes of Judah are likened to the treetop of a cedar of Lebanon carried off to Babylon. (Eze 17:1-4, 12, 13) Thereafter the Messiah is prophetically pictured as a twig from the very top of the cedar, which Jehovah then plants on a lofty mountain.
The cedarwood used in the wilderness by the Israelites was evidently from a type of cedar other than that of Lebanon. The brown-berried cedar (Juniperus oxycedrus) and the Phoenician juniper (Juniperus phoenicia) have been suggested, both being well known in the Sinai desert region. Certain purification rites required the use of cedarwood, and it may be that, because of its well-known resistance to decay, it was there used to symbolize freedom from corruption or disease.
That the cedar served figuratively in an adverse as well as a favorable sense is evident. It became a status symbol among the unfaithful materialistic kings of Judah and symbolized their self-exaltation and false security. (Jer 22:13-15, 23; Isa 2:11-13) Yet, the growth and development of the righteous man is likened to that of the firmly rooted cedar. (Ps 92:12; compare Isa 61:3 with Ps 104:16.) So, while on the one hand Jehovah manifests his power by breaking the mighty cedars of Lebanon and making them ‘skip about the mountains like calves’ (Ps 29:4-6), on the other hand he foretells the time when he will make the cedar grow even in the wilderness regions (Isa 41:19, 20) and singles it out among the trees as one of the many creations that will praise his lofty name.
1. [Heb., berohshʹ]. The Hebrew term for this tree has been given various meanings, such as “fir,” “cypress”; however, some lexicographers recommend the juniper tree on good basis. (See Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros, by L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Leiden, 1958, p. 148; The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, edited by G. A. Buttrick, 1962, Vol. 2, p. 293.) Since the tree was imported from Lebanon by King Solomon (1Ki 5:8-10; 9:11; 2Ch 2:8), it may be identified with the Juniperus excelsa, a tall, robust evergreen growing up to 20 m (66 ft) in height, with spreading branches, small scalelike leaves, and dark, small, globular fruit. It is highly fragrant. The timber from this juniper tree is greatly valued for its durability.
The Juniperus excelsa is a native of Lebanon and is regularly associated with that land, being included with other trees as the “glory of Lebanon.” (2Ki 19:23; Isa 14:8; 37:24;60:13) The psalmist spoke of the juniper trees as the “house,” or nesting place, of storks. (Ps 104:17) Juniper wood was used extensively in the temple built by Solomon. (2Ch 3:5) The leaves of the main doors were made of juniper wood (1Ki 6:34), and the floor was overlaid with it. (1Ki 6:15) It is elsewhere spoken of as being used for rafters (Ca 1:17), planking for ships (Eze 27:5), spear shafts (Na 2:3), and musical instruments (2Sa 6:5). As a luxuriant tree, it is used in the restoration prophecies to describe the beauty and fruitful fertility to be brought to the land of God’s people.
2. [Heb., ʽaroh·ʽerʹ or ʽar·ʽarʹ]. The Arabic word ʽarʽar aids in identifying this tree as probably the Juniperus phoenicia, a shrublike tree to be found in the Sinai region and also in the area of the Desert of Edom. The root word in the Hebrew from which the tree’s name is drawn has the idea of “nakedness” or being “stripped” (compare Ps 102:17), and this dwarf juniper is correspondingly described as of rather gloomy appearance, growing in rocky parts of the desert and on crags. It is fittingly used in the book of Jeremiah when comparing the man whose heart turns away from Jehovah with “a solitary tree [ʽar·ʽarʹ] in the desert plain,” and also in warning the Moabites to take flight and become “like a juniper tree [ka·ʽaroh·ʽerʹ] in the wilderness.”
An evergreen, often growing as a shrub but capable of heights up to some 15 m (50 ft). The entire tree (leaves, bark, roots, and fruit) contains an oil long employed in medicine. The leaves are oblong and leathery, with a glossy upper side.
This tree is mentioned as the last of several trees in Isaiah 44:14; it is the only reference to the tree in the Hebrew Scriptures. Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros (by L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Leiden, 1958, p. 88) identifies the name with the laurel tree (Laurus nobilis), also commonly called the sweet bay tree. (See also The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, edited by G. A. Buttrick, 1962, Vol. 2, p. 293.) TheLaurus nobilis is found from the coast on up into the middle mountain regions of Palestine and grows in other Mediterranean countries as well.
Laurel leaves were used by the ancient Greeks to form wreaths, which they placed on the heads of victors in the Pythian Games and also extended to those holding certain offices as a symbol of distinction.
https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200002693 [emphasis added, with permission from some of the federal agents who’re pretending to be Jehovah’s Witnesses, cc all Mormon barristers]
Orrin Grant Hatch (born March 22, 1934) is an American politician who has been the President pro tempore of the United States Senate, since January 2015.
A member of the Republican Party, he serves as the senior United States Senator for Utah. In office since 1977, Hatch is the most senior Republican Senator, the second-most senior Senator overall, after Democrat Patrick Leahy of Vermont, who has served since 1975. Having served for 40 years, 215 days, Hatch is the longest-serving Republican Senator in U.S. history.
Hatch served as either the chairman or ranking minority member of the Senate Judiciary Committee from 1993 to 2005. He previously served as chairman of the Labour and Human Resources Committee from 1981 to 1987 and currently serves as Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee as well as serving on the Board of Directors for the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
After the Republicans won control of the Senate during the 2014 midterms, Hatch became president pro tempore on January 6, 2015, after the 114th United States Congress was sworn in.
(to be continued)
The purpose of this website is to expose the Mormon Church of Satan and all enemies of Jesus Christ the Way the Truth the Life, the Prince of Peace. This website is also the beginning of a presidential campaign to elect Caroline Kennedy President of the United States. I prayed to Jehovah God to please, by means of His son Christ Jesus, please, arrange national events and world events in such a manner such that Caroline Kennedy is elected President of the United States. I know Jehovah God hears my prayer and will answer my prayer because that particular prayer of mine is one of my deepest desires and Jehovah God has promised me that he will satisfy all of my deepest desires. All of the information posted at this website is interconnected; directly connected to the Mormon Church of Satan’s illegal sting operation surrounding Jehovah’s Witnesses worldwide, and me. The illegal sting operation that encompasses every human being on earth, and has resulted in the LEGAL CASE, unlike any other, ever. The LEGAL CASE, headed to The Hague, Netherlands. cc all Mormon attorneys
Maintain Your Focus on Jesus!
(Matthew 14:22-34; Hebrews 12:2)
(Concluding talk, Jehovah’s Witnesses Convention 2015, worldwide)